P5: Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange

AMEEL is a Web-based portal and a digital collection of information for the study of the Middle East, including its history, culture, development, and contemporary face. Within this portal, Yale University Library integrates existing scholarly digital content with newly digitized resources to make such materials easier to find and use efficiently and freely. This collection reflects the Arabic and Persian intellectual efforts that translated, augmented, and transmitted Greek and Roman medical knowledge to Western societies during the Renaissance. It includes iconic works by authors such as Avicenna and al-Razi. Digital historical documents relevant to the fields of law, economics, politics, diplomacy and government on the World Wide Web. Currently contains, among other things, The debates in the Federal Convention of , reported by James Madison, materials relating to the Nuremberg trials, works by Thomas Jefferson, and materials relating to diplomatic relations between the United States and Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries. The Beinecke houses outstanding special collections devoted to American literature, German literature, Western Americana, and British literary and historical manuscripts. The Beinecke Digital Collections database includes hundreds of thousands of digital reproductions of historical materials in its holdings. Faber Birren was a leading authority on the effects of color on humans as well as a dedicated collector of texts on color.

Early Buddhist Manuscript Painting: The Palm-Leaf Tradition

Kozok Uli. A 14 th Century Malay Manuscript from Kerinci. In: Archipel , volume 67, En , P. Le texte, de 32 pages, contient un code de lois du royaume de Dharmasraya.

conventions and practices from existing Indic and Islamicate manuscript This article presents hypotheses on the manuscript’s provenance, compares this to an Ethiopic Gospel book dating to the late fourteenth or early fifteenth century.

The essential skill of a paleographer is the ability to recognize the numerous styles of handwriting prevalent in different ages and places. Most European scripts descend from Greek and Roman capital letters, but variations are enormous. It is a European convention that writing starts on the left at the top and works line by line down the page. The Greek and Latin alphabets existed originally as capital, or majuscule , letters.

The ancient Greek alphabet , as developed in chiselled inscriptions on stone or marble, served without much modification as the alphabet used in literary works written on papyrus rolls. This script, found in the oldest surviving Greek literary papyri of c. Cursive scripts that were easier to write were developed for everyday use, for business, and to record the acts of the great bureaucracy of Egypt, where the Greeks settled in large numbers. The Greek cursive script and the formal book script greatly influenced each other, as can be seen from a vast series of cursive documents dating from the 4th century bc for about 1, years.

Because so much material survived, early Greek cursive can be better studied than its Latin counterpart. In Greek cursive manuscripts the everyday life of ordinary people becomes a reality: they pay or fail to pay taxes, buy or sell houses, and harass civil servants with awkward demands. A very rough division in Greek paleography may be made at around ad The earlier age is called the papyrus period; and the later, the parchment or Byzantine or Christian period.

The division, however, is imprecise, for parchment was used well before and papyrus long after this date.

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News Contact Index Log In. As this guide is focused on online resources, the lack of stability of such resources must be stressed: Links might be broken, software might be non-compatible, etc. Palaeography is the study of ancient handwriting. Codicology is the study of the codex, and examines the book as a physical object and how it was produced. Details of all of these concepts and their presentation in primary source materials can be found in the digital resources presented in this guide and in the bibliography.

Dating and localisation of hands. Debate about nature of manuscript-studies and. The physical manifestation of a learned set of conventions? ▫ A cultural.

The msdescription module 40 defines a special purpose element which can be used to provide detailed descriptive information about handwritten primary sources and other text-bearing objects. Although originally developed to meet the needs of cataloguers and scholars working with medieval manuscripts in the European tradition, the scheme presented here is general enough that it can also be extended to other traditions and materials, and is potentially useful for any kind of text-bearing artefact.

Where the textuality of an object is not the primary concern, encoders may wish to use the object element which provides a very similar system of description see The scheme described here is also intended to accommodate the needs of many different classes of encoders. On the one hand, encoders may be engaged in retrospective conversion of existing detailed descriptions and catalogues into machine tractable form; on the other, they may be engaged in cataloguing ex nihilo , that is, creating new detailed descriptions for materials never before catalogued.

Some may be primarily concerned to represent accurately the description itself, as opposed to the ideas and interpretations the description represents; others may have entirely opposite priorities.

English Handwriting Online 1500-1700

A piece of parchment used for decades to wrap two 16th-century English volumes in the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington has been identified as a fragment of a seventh-century manuscript, one of the earliest examples of Irish handwriting in existence. Philip Knachel, associate director of the Folger, said. The manuscript covered two English books dating from and The books, which deal with public health and the plague, were bought 50 years ago in Birmingham, England.

Scholars who have examined the manuscript do not know how it came to serve as a wrapper, but they said that it may possibly have happened sometime after Henry VIII ordered the dissolution of the monasteries in the midth century. Monastic libraries were pillaged, books were destroyed or scattered and fragments from the few surviving manuscripts were often used in binding later printed works.

Sampling DNA From a 1,Year-Old Illuminated Manuscript. Genetic analysis So Collins got to thinking about archives full of old manuscripts. “You look at 4 The Democratic Convention Is a Reality Check for Trump.

Albert Derolez’s Introduction to Codicology M requires at least some knowledge of Latin, and his Latin Paleography, M is aimed at specialists who have already had previous formal exposure to paleography. Christopher Clarkson’s Medieval and Early Renaissance Bookbinding Structures B attracts both conservators and those with a more general interest in early manuscripts.

Introduction to Paleography, Consuelo Detschke. This course provides an introduction to the basic scripts and the text typologies of the western European Middle Ages and the Renaissance from to , with focus on reading and transcription. In admitting students to the class, the instructor will prefer those with at least a beginning knowledge of Latin.

In this course, recognition of the main types of script in their letter forms, abbreviations and decorative hierarchies entertwines with manifestations of text types to build a foundation for eventual advanced study in paleography.

Dating genomic variants and shared ancestry in population-scale sequencing data

Don’t have an account? This chapter provides an introduction to the palaeography of the surviving twelfth-century manuscripts from Reading Abbey. It summarizes the evidence taken from various features of the manuscripts to show that some of these manuscripts were produced at or for the abbey whilst others were acquired from other sources, and shows when the various manuscripts entered the abbey.

Assessing the authenticity of a confiscated manuscript using radiocarbon dating and archaeometric techniques. Article (PDF Available) in Archaeological and.

A vast body of Indian religious texts was recorded and transmitted through the palm-leaf manuscript. This humble form of the book, at once fragile and resilient, has provided a vehicle for Indian religious thought for more than two thousand years and served as a medium for preserving some of the earliest surviving paintings known from India. Drawn from the Museum’s own holdings, this installation of thirty folios features some of the earliest surviving illuminated palm-leaf manuscripts, dating from the tenth to the thirteenth century, including some that have never been exhibited.

The traditional Indian manuscript consists of a series of unbound folios prepared from the treated and trimmed leaves of the talipot and palmyra palm trees. The text was either inscribed or painted directly on the folio. In northern and eastern India it was customary to write on the leaf in ink applied with a reed pen or brush, as evidenced by the works on view in the exhibition. The loose folios were secured by a binding cord threaded through holes in each folio and around a pair of wooden covers that held the folios firmly together and protected them from damage.

The manuscript was then wrapped in a cloth for storage in the monastic library. From at least the tenth century, these manuscripts were also beautifully illuminated, typically with images of the deities to whom the text was dedicated and who were evoked through its recitation.

Transcribing medieval manuscripts with TEI

The York Gospels were assembled more than a thousand years ago. Bound in leather, illustrated, and illuminated, the book contains the four gospels of the Bible as well as land records and oaths taken by clergymen who read, rubbed, and kissed its pages over centuries. The Archbishops of York still swear their oaths on this book. The York Gospels are also, quite literally, a bunch of old cow and sheep skins.

A group of archaeologists and geneticists in the United Kingdom have now analyzed the remarkably rich DNA reservoir of the York Gospels. They found DNA from humans who swore oaths on its pages and from bacteria likely originating on the hands and mouths of those humans.

from authors who would have struggled to understand the dating conventions used in the original manuscripts. Manuscripts which in turn.

A significant and unsolved problem in digital resources for medieval and earlier material is how to represent dates or, rather, uncertain date periods. The problem is that we often do not know exactly when something happened: when a manuscript was written, when an artefact was constructed, when a coin was lost. This, of course, is normal, but it becomes a problem when we introduce the computer.

Although so-called ‘fuzzy logic’ has been around for a while now, the fact remains that computers fundamentally are designed for ‘clear’ answers — the famous digital ‘ones and zeros’, ‘yes or no’. But how does ‘early eleventh century’ fit into this? Does it come before or after ‘somewhere between the years and ‘? Does it include the year let alone the year ?

Introduction to dating documents

Account Books. Includes the records of an Adams County, Mississippi lumber company dating from 1 box. Jennie and Lucia Adams Collection. Box 1 includes financial documents and correspondence from the Reconstruction period 13 boxes. Samuel Agnew Diary Photocopies. An Associate Reformed Presbyterian minister, teacher, and farmer who lived in Mississippi, Samuel Agnew wrote journal entries during Reconstruction 23 boxes.

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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Some tools for the dating of Medieval Icelandic manuscripts. Roberto L. Pagani Some tools for the dating of Medieval Icelandic manuscripts In these tables some of the elements to look for in the process of dating a Medieval Icelandic manuscript are collected. They are intended to help students by organising in a visually neat way a number of changes that constitute evidence for the age of a text.

They can be used as a supporting reference in the search for some linguistic and palaeographic features. The dating can be done by starting with the more general features, for example the type of script, and then moving to the particular ones, such as palaeographical symbols or clues for sound changes. Proceeding by elimination, one may exclude the oldest features first and then move to the younger ones until those which are present in the manuscript can be found, to progressively narrow down the possible time-frame.

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